PGI Errata


120. All of the following are live vaccines
A. Cholera
B. BCG
C. KFD
D. Yellow fever
E. Mumps
                                                                                                                                                                
Answer BDE

Live attenuated vaccines
BCG
Typhoid oral
Oral polio
Yellow fever
Measles
Rubella
Mumps
Chicken pox
Influenza
Epidemic typhus
Inactivated or killed vaccines
Typhoid
Cholera
Pertussis
C.S Meningitis
Plague
Rabies
Salk
Hepatitis A
Hepatitis B
Japanese encephalitis
KFD
Toxoids
Diphtheria
Tetanus
Human immunoglobulins
Hepatitis A
Measles
Rabies
Tetanus
Mumps
Hepatitis B
Varicella
Diphtheria
Non human antisera
Diphtheria
Tetanus
Gas gangrene
Botulism
rabies

145. The synthesis of glucose from pyruvate by gluconeogenesis
A. Occurs in both the cytosol and mitochondria
B. Is inhibited by an elevated level of glucagon
C. Requires participation of biotin
D. Involves lactate as an intermediate
E. Requires oxidation/reduction of FAD

Answer A
Biotin is the coenzyme prosthetic group of pyruvate carboxylase. The carboxylation of pyruvate occurs in the mitochondria. Glucagon stimulates gluconeogenesis. Lactate is not an intermediate in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate. However, pyruvate can be produced from lactate. FAD is not involved in gluconeogenesis

150. Which of the following organisms is unlikely to be found in the sputum of a patient with cystic fibrosis?
A. Haemophilus influenzae
B. Acinetobacter baumannii
C. Burkholderia cepacia
D. Aspergillus fumigatus
E. Staphylococcus aureus

Answer B
Patients with cystic fibrosis are at risk for colonization and/or infection with a number of pathogens, and in general these infections have a temporal relationship. In childhood, the most frequently isolated organisms are Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus aureus. As patients age, Pseudomonas aeruginosa becomes the predominant pathogen. Interestingly, Aspergillus fumigatus is found in the airways of up to 50% of cystic fibrosis patients. All these organisms merely colonize the airways but
occasionally can also cause disease. Burkholderia (previously called Pseudomonas) cepacia can  occasionally be found in the sputum of cystic fibrosis patients, where it is always pathogenic and is associated with a rapid decline in both clinical parameters and pulmonary function testing. Atypical mycobacteria can occasionally be found in the sputum but are often merely colonizers. Acinetobacter baumannii is not associated with cystic fibrosis; rather, it is generally found in nosocomial infections.

197. A 21-year-old has difficulty voiding 6 h postpartum. The least likely cause is which of the following?
a. Preeclampsia
b. Infusion of oxytocin after delivery
c. Vulvar hematoma
d. Urethral trauma
e. Use of general anesthesia

Answer A
An inability to void often leads to the diagnosis of a vulvar hematoma. Such hematomas are often large enough to apply pressure on the urethra. Pain from urethral lacerations is another reason women have difficulty voiding after delivery. Both general anesthesia, which temporarily disturbs neural control of the bladder, and oxytocin, which has an antidiuretic effect, can lead to an overdistended bladder and an inability to void. In this case an indwelling catheter should be inserted and left in for at least 24 h to allow recovery of normal bladder tone and sensation. Preeclampsia often leads to edema, which generally leads to diuresis postpartum.



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